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حل اسئلة الحوسبة السحابية قسم الحاسوب الجامعة المستنصرية نموذج رقم 1

حل اسئلة الحوسبة السحابية قسم الحاسوب الجامعة المستنصرية نموذج رقم 1

حل اسئلة الحوسبة السحابية قسم الحاسوب الجامعة المستنصرية نموذج رقم 1



 1 Define each of the following: (Four only)

 1. Cloud computing (NIST)  2.Ephemeral storage   3. Hybrid cloud computing  4. PaaS

 5. Virtual Machin   6. Hypervisor

Sol//

1. Cloud computing (NIST):

   Cloud computing, as defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This model promotes availability and is typically characterized by five essential characteristics: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service.

1. الحوسبة السحابية (NIST):

    الحوسبة السحابية، كما حددها المعهد الوطني للمعايير والتكنولوجيا (NIST)، هي نموذج لتمكين الوصول إلى الشبكة في كل مكان ومريح وعند الطلب إلى مجموعة مشتركة من موارد الحوسبة القابلة للتكوين (مثل الشبكات والخوادم والتخزين والتطبيقات، والخدمات) التي يمكن توفيرها وإصدارها بسرعة بأقل جهد إداري أو تفاعل مع مزود الخدمة. يعزز هذا النموذج التوافر ويتميز عادة بخمس خصائص أساسية: الخدمة الذاتية عند الطلب، والوصول إلى الشبكة على نطاق واسع، وتجميع الموارد، والمرونة السريعة، والخدمة المقاسة.


2. Ephemeral storage:

   Ephemeral storage refers to temporary storage space allocated to a computing instance or virtual machine (VM) in a cloud environment. It is typically non-persistent and volatile, meaning that data stored in ephemeral storage is temporary and will be erased when the instance or VM is terminated or restarted. Ephemeral storage is often used for temporary files, caching, or other short-term data storage needs.

2. التخزين المؤقت:

    يشير التخزين المؤقت إلى مساحة التخزين المؤقتة المخصصة لمثيل الحوسبة أو الجهاز الظاهري (VM) في بيئة سحابية. وهي عادة ما تكون غير مستمرة ومتقلبة، مما يعني أن البيانات المخزنة في وحدة التخزين المؤقتة هي بيانات مؤقتة وسيتم مسحها عند إنهاء المثيل أو الجهاز الظاهري أو إعادة تشغيله. غالبًا ما يتم استخدام التخزين المؤقت للملفات المؤقتة أو التخزين المؤقت أو غيرها من احتياجات تخزين البيانات قصيرة المدى.


3. Hybrid cloud computing:

   Hybrid cloud computing refers to a cloud computing environment that combines elements of public and private clouds, allowing data and applications to be shared between them. In a hybrid cloud setup, organizations can leverage the scalability and cost-effectiveness of public cloud services for certain workloads while maintaining control and security over sensitive data and applications in a private cloud or on-premises infrastructure. Hybrid cloud environments offer flexibility, allowing organizations to optimize their IT resources based on workload requirements and compliance needs.

3. الحوسبة السحابية الهجينة:

    تشير الحوسبة السحابية الهجينة إلى بيئة الحوسبة السحابية التي تجمع بين عناصر السحابة العامة والخاصة، مما يسمح بمشاركة البيانات والتطبيقات فيما بينها. في إعداد السحابة المختلطة، يمكن للمؤسسات الاستفادة من قابلية التوسع وفعالية التكلفة للخدمات السحابية العامة لأحمال عمل معينة مع الحفاظ على التحكم والأمن في البيانات والتطبيقات الحساسة في سحابة خاصة أو بنية تحتية محلية. توفر البيئات السحابية المختلطة المرونة، مما يسمح للمؤسسات بتحسين موارد تكنولوجيا المعلومات الخاصة بها بناءً على متطلبات عبء العمل واحتياجات الامتثال.


4. PaaS (Platform as a Service):

   Platform as a Service (PaaS) is a cloud computing service model that provides a platform and environment for developers to build, deploy, and manage applications without having to worry about underlying infrastructure components such as servers, storage, and networking. PaaS offerings typically include development tools, middleware, runtime environments, and other resources needed to support the entire application lifecycle, from development to deployment and scaling. PaaS enables developers to focus on writing code and developing applications, accelerating the development process and reducing time-to-market.

4. PaaS (المنصة كخدمة):

    النظام الأساسي كخدمة (PaaS) هو نموذج خدمة حوسبة سحابية يوفر نظامًا أساسيًا وبيئة للمطورين لإنشاء التطبيقات ونشرها وإدارتها دون الحاجة إلى القلق بشأن مكونات البنية التحتية الأساسية مثل الخوادم والتخزين والشبكات. تتضمن عروض PaaS عادةً أدوات التطوير والبرامج الوسيطة وبيئات التشغيل والموارد الأخرى اللازمة لدعم دورة حياة التطبيق بأكملها، بدءًا من التطوير وحتى النشر والتوسع. تتيح PaaS للمطورين التركيز على كتابة التعليمات البرمجية وتطوير التطبيقات، وتسريع عملية التطوير وتقليل وقت طرحها في السوق.


5. Virtual Machine:

   A virtual machine (VM) is a software-based emulation of a physical computer system that runs an operating system and applications. VMs are created using virtualization technology, which allows multiple VMs to run concurrently on a single physical server or host machine. Each VM operates independently and has its own virtual hardware, including CPU, memory, storage, and network interfaces. VMs provide flexibility, scalability, and resource isolation, making them ideal for server consolidation, application testing, and cloud computing environments.

5. الآلة الافتراضية:

    الجهاز الظاهري (VM) عبارة عن محاكاة برمجية لنظام كمبيوتر فعلي يقوم بتشغيل نظام التشغيل والتطبيقات. يتم إنشاء الأجهزة الافتراضية باستخدام تقنية المحاكاة الافتراضية، والتي تسمح بتشغيل أجهزة افتراضية متعددة بشكل متزامن على خادم فعلي واحد أو جهاز مضيف. يعمل كل جهاز افتراضي بشكل مستقل وله أجهزته الافتراضية الخاصة، بما في ذلك وحدة المعالجة المركزية والذاكرة والتخزين وواجهات الشبكة. توفر الأجهزة الافتراضية المرونة وقابلية التوسع وعزل الموارد، مما يجعلها مثالية لدمج الخوادم واختبار التطبيقات وبيئات الحوسبة السحابية.


6. Hypervisor:

   A hypervisor, also known as a virtual machine monitor (VMM), is a software layer that enables the creation and management of virtual machines (VMs) on a physical server or host machine. The hypervisor abstracts the underlying hardware resources and allocates them to VMs, allowing multiple VMs to run independently on the same physical hardware. Hypervisors come in two main types: Type 1 hypervisors run directly on the bare metal hardware, while Type 2 hypervisors run on top of a host operating system. Hypervisors provide the foundation for virtualization technology and enable the efficient sharing and utilization of hardware resources in virtualized environments.

6. المشرف:

    برنامج Hypervisor، المعروف أيضًا باسم جهاز مراقبة الجهاز الظاهري (VMM)، عبارة عن طبقة برمجية تتيح إنشاء الأجهزة الافتراضية (VMs) وإدارتها على خادم فعلي أو جهاز مضيف. يقوم برنامج Hypervisor باستخلاص موارد الأجهزة الأساسية وتخصيصها للأجهزة الافتراضية، مما يسمح لأجهزة افتراضية متعددة بالعمل بشكل مستقل على نفس الجهاز الفعلي. تأتي برامج Hypervisor في نوعين رئيسيين: تعمل برامج Hypervisor من النوع 1 مباشرة على الأجهزة المعدنية، بينما تعمل برامج Hypervisor من النوع 2 أعلى نظام التشغيل المضيف. يوفر برنامج Hypervisor الأساس لتقنية المحاكاة الافتراضية ويتيح المشاركة والاستخدام الفعال لموارد الأجهزة في البيئات الافتراضية.


2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words:

1. After virtualization, the characteristics of virtual machines arc --------- and --------.

2. One of the examples of bara-metal virtualization is ------------- .

3. The benefits of cloud ----------,------------- and ----------- .

4. The different cloud service models target different audience, for example, laaS models targets

the----------- , PaaS targets ------------ and SaaS targets the------------- .

5. Clients are one of the components of cloud computing that generally fall into three categories

--------------,-------------- and ------------- .

6. Key properties of cloud computing are -------------,------------ and ------------ .

7. The distributed computing has two main characteristic features ------------- and ------------- .

8. The classification of the cloud deployment is based on several parameters such as the

-------------,------------- and -------------- .

Sol//

1. flexibility and isolation.

2. Xen Hypervisor.

3. scalability, elasticity, and cost-efficiency.

4. IaaS models target the infrastructure, PaaS targets developers, and SaaS targets the end-users.

5. Fat Clients, Thin Clients, and Mobile Clients.

6. on-demand self-service, broad network access, and resource pooling.

7. concurrency and fault tolerance.

8. service model, location, and ownership.


3-Write (True) in the correct answers and (False) in the wrong answer and correct the answers (choose eight only )

1. In Public storage cloud computing, the data is stored on the premises of the cloud storage

service provider and is accessed through network services.

2. Multitenancy is one of the issues in the hybrid cloud.

3. Hosted storage is fixed content storage to which blocks or files are typically written to once,

and read from many times.

4. Data segregation one of the limitations of cloud computing.

5. G-suit is office suit offered as a service (SaaS).

6. Strength SLA in Private cloud computing.

7. AmazonES2 it is a service (PaaS) allows users to rent virtual machine.

8. One of advanced storage virtualization techniques is NAT.

9. Engine Yard one of popular providers of laaS includes.

10. IRM Cloud offers various storage options, including archive, backup, and object storage.

Sol//

Cloud Computing True/False and Corrections:

  1. (True).
  2. (False): Multitenancy is actually a benefit of cloud computing, allowing multiple users to share resources on the same infrastructure.
    • Correction: Security and compliance concerns can be an issue in hybrid cloud due to the mix of public and private environments.
  3. (False): Hosted storage can be used for both writing and reading data. It's a general term for storage accessed over a network, not limited to read-only content.
  4. (True).
  5. (True).
  6. (False): Strength of Service Level Agreements (SLAs) is typically higher in public cloud computing as providers compete for customers. Private clouds might have less stringent SLAs.
  7. (True).
  8. (False): NAT (Network Address Translation) is a networking technology, not a storage virtualization technique.
    • Correction: Examples of advanced storage virtualization techniques include thin provisioning, storage tiering, and replication.
  9. (False): Engine Yard is a provider of PaaS (Platform as a Service), not IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service). It helps developers deploy and manage applications.
  10. (True).


4-Choose the correct answer (One answer for each point) (20Marks)

1- The computing trend moved toward cloud from the concept of ------------- .

A. Parallel Computing  B. Cluster Computing  C. Distributed Computing

D. Grid Computing    E. Quantum Computing

2- Which of the following is/are classic example of an IaaS service model?

A. AWS B. Azure C. Cloudera D. EC1 E. All of the mentioned

3- Which cloud characteristic refers to the ability of subscribe to increase or decrease its computing requirements as needed without having to contact a human representative of the cloud provider?

A. Resource pooling

B. On-demand self service

C. Rapid elasticity

D. Broad network access

E. metering

4- Point out the correct statement:

A. The use of the word "cloud" makes reference to the two essential concepts.

B. Cloud computing abstracts systems by pooling and sharing resources.

C. Cloud computing is nothing more than the Internet.

D. Cloud computing have five deployments.

E. All of the mentioned.

5- -------- has many of the characteristics of what is now being called cloud computing.

A. Internet    B. software    C. Web Service     D. Data Base   E. None of them

6- Which of the following benefit is related to create resources that are pooled together in a

system that supports multi-tenant usage?

A. On-demand self-service    B. Broad network access    C. Resource pooling

D. Measured service     E. All of the mentioned

7- Which of the following is most important area of concern in cloud computing?

A. Security   B. Storage   C. Scalability   D. Virtualization    E. All of them

8- Which of the following cloud concept is related to pooling and sharing of resources?

A. Polymorphism   B. Abstraction   C. Virtualization   D. Scalability   E. None of them

9- the ---------- cloud infrastructure is operated for the exclusive use of an organization.

A. Public    B. Private   C. Community    D. Hybrid   E. None of the mentioned

10 - ------------ provides virtual machines, virtual storage, virtual infrastructure, and other

hardware assets.

A. CaaS   B. SaaS   C. PaaS    D. IaaS  E. None of the mentioned


Q 5 Answer the following: (Two Only)

1) The overall benefits of storage cloud computing vary significantly based on the underlying

storage infrastructure. So, what are the benefits of storage cloud computing? (Five Only)

Sol//

1. Scalability: Storage cloud computing offers scalable storage solutions, allowing organizations to easily increase or decrease their storage capacity based on their changing needs without significant upfront investment or infrastructure changes.

1. قابلية التوسع: توفر الحوسبة السحابية للتخزين حلول تخزين قابلة للتطوير، مما يسمح للمؤسسات بزيادة سعة التخزين الخاصة بها أو تقليلها بسهولة بناءً على احتياجاتها المتغيرة دون استثمار مسبق كبير أو تغييرات في البنية التحتية.


2. Cost-efficiency: Cloud storage typically follows a pay-as-you-go model, where organizations only pay for the storage they use. This eliminates the need for upfront capital expenditure on hardware and allows for more predictable operational expenses.

2. كفاءة التكلفة: يتبع التخزين السحابي عادةً نموذج الدفع أولاً بأول، حيث تدفع المؤسسات فقط مقابل مساحة التخزين التي تستخدمها. وهذا يلغي الحاجة إلى الإنفاق الرأسمالي مقدمًا على الأجهزة ويسمح بنفقات تشغيلية أكثر قابلية للتنبؤ بها.

3. Accessibility: Cloud storage can be accessed from anywhere with an internet connection, providing users with convenient access to their data from various devices and locations.

3. إمكانية الوصول: يمكن الوصول إلى التخزين السحابي من أي مكان متصل بالإنترنت، مما يوفر للمستخدمين سهولة الوصول إلى بياناتهم من مختلف الأجهزة والمواقع.

4. Redundancy and Reliability: Many storage cloud providers offer redundancy and data replication across multiple geographic locations, ensuring high availability and data durability. This helps mitigate the risk of data loss due to hardware failures or disasters.

4. التكرار والموثوقية: يقدم العديد من موفري خدمات التخزين السحابية التكرار وتكرار البيانات عبر مواقع جغرافية متعددة، مما يضمن التوفر العالي ومتانة البيانات. ويساعد ذلك في التخفيف من مخاطر فقدان البيانات بسبب فشل الأجهزة أو الكوارث.

5. Data Management and Collaboration: Storage cloud platforms often include features for data management, versioning, and collaboration, making it easier for teams to access, share, and collaborate on files and documents securely.

5. إدارة البيانات والتعاون: غالبًا ما تشتمل منصات التخزين السحابية على ميزات لإدارة البيانات وإصدار الإصدارات والتعاون، مما يسهل على الفرق الوصول إلى الملفات والمستندات ومشاركتها والتعاون فيها بشكل آمن.


2)What is the Characteristics of Public cloud computing?

Sol//

1. On-demand self-service .

2. Broad network access.

3. Resource pooling .

4. Rapid elasticity .

5. Measured service.

6. Multi-tenancy.

7. High availability.

8. Limited control.

3)Virtualization play major role in the Cloud Computing so list the resources that can be

virtualized and explain in details data Virtualization with drawing the concept of data Virtualization?

sol//

Virtualization plays a crucial role in cloud computing by abstracting physical resources and providing virtual instances that can be managed and allocated more efficiently. Here are some resources that can be virtualized in cloud computing:

1. Compute Virtualization: This involves abstracting physical servers into multiple virtual machines (VMs) or containers. Compute virtualization allows for better resource utilization, improved scalability, and easier management of workloads.

2. Storage Virtualization: Storage virtualization abstracts physical storage devices into virtual storage pools that can be allocated dynamically to different applications or users. It allows for more efficient storage utilization, data redundancy, and simplified data management.

3. Network Virtualization: Network virtualization abstracts physical network resources, such as switches and routers, into virtual networks that can operate independently of the underlying physical infrastructure. It enables better network flexibility, isolation, and security.

4. Desktop Virtualization: Also known as Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI), desktop virtualization abstracts desktop environments into virtual instances that can be accessed remotely by users. It centralizes desktop management, improves security, and enhances mobility for end-users.

Now, let's delve into data virtualization in more detail:

Data Virtualization: Data virtualization is a technology that abstracts data from its physical location, format, or storage systems and presents it in a unified, virtualized view to users or applications. It allows organizations to access and integrate data from disparate sources without the need for physical movement or replication. Data virtualization enables real-time access to data, facilitates data integration and federation, and provides a more agile approach to data management.

Key Components of Data Virtualization:

1. Data Sources: Data virtualization integrates data from various sources, including databases, data warehouses, cloud storage, web services, and streaming platforms.

2. Virtual Data Layer: The virtual data layer is the abstraction layer that sits between data consumers (applications, users) and data sources. It presents a unified view of the underlying data sources and provides access to virtualized data objects.

3. Query Engine: The query engine executes queries against the virtual data layer, fetching data from the underlying sources as needed. It optimizes query performance, handles data transformation and aggregation, and ensures data consistency and security.

4. Metadata Repository: The metadata repository stores metadata about the virtualized data sources, including schema information, data lineage, access controls, and data governance policies. It enables data discovery, lineage tracking, and metadata management.

Concept of Data Virtualization:

Data virtualization abstracts the physical data sources into a virtualized layer, allowing users or applications to access and query data without knowledge of its underlying location or structure. Here's a simplified diagram illustrating the concept of data virtualization:

Concept of Data Virtualization:


4) What is Grid computing and why grid computing is more popular?

Sol//

Grid computing is a distributed computing paradigm that involves coordinating and sharing computing resources across multiple administrative domains to solve complex computational problems. In grid computing, resources such as processing power, storage, and network bandwidth are pooled together and dynamically allocated to tasks based on demand. Grid computing enables organizations to harness the collective computing power of interconnected resources to tackle large-scale computational problems efficiently.


Grid computing is more popular for several reasons:

1. Scalability

2. Cost-Efficiency

3. Collaboration 

4. Performance

5. Flexibility


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